Different technology of tempered glasses:
Physically toughened glass is also called quenched toughened glass. When the ordinary flat glass is heated to the softening temperature close to the glass (600 C) in the heating furnace, the internal stress is eliminated by its own deformation, then the glass is moved out of the heating furnace, and the high-pressure cold air is blown to both sides of the glass with multiple-nozzle, so that it can be cooled rapidly and evenly to room temperature, then the toughened glass can be made. This kind of glass is in the stress state of internal tension and external compression. Once local damage occurs, stress release will occur. The glass is broken into numerous small pieces. These small pieces have no sharp edges and corners, and are not easy to hurt people.
Chemical toughened glass is to improve the strength of glass by changing the chemical composition of the surface of glass. Generally, ion exchange method is used to toughen the glass. The method is to immerse silicate glass containing alkali metal ions into lithium (Li+) salt in molten state, exchange Na + or K + ions on the surface of the glass with Li + ions, and form Li + ion exchange layer on the surface. As the expansion coefficient of Li + is less than Na + and K + ions, the shrinkage of the outer layer is smaller while that of the inner layer is larger during the cooling process. When the glass is cooled to room temperature, it will be the same. The sample is in the state of tension in the inner layer and compression in the outer layer, and its effect is similar to that of physical toughened glass.
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